**Formulas** are expressions made up of data columns, constants, functions, and operators that access or manipulate data from within the database. **Columns** are values that come from the data. Their names are are enclosed in square brackets, like [ShippedDate]. **Constants** are simply specific fixed values that you enter into a Formula. **Functions** return values, usually computations based on columns and constants. **Operators** do arithmetic and logical comparisons.

Note that the SQL and Formulas used in the Report Center is a proprietary/hybrid version of SQL. "Classic" SQL formulas commonly used in Excel do not function in the Report Center. If you are unfamiliar with SQL, start with this article before continuing.

## Functions

The following table explains every function available in an analysis. You can find more information regarding syntax and technical notes by clicking **Formula Help** from the Formula tab of an Analysis.

Function Name |
Description |

Abs | Returns the absolute value of a number. |

Case | Returns one value or another, depending on if the expression evaluates to True or False. |

DateAdd | Adds or subtracts some interval of time from a date or time. |

DateDiff | Computes the difference between two dates. |

DatePart | Returns part of a date. |

DateSerial | Combines date parts together to make a date. |

DateValue | Returns a date from a date string. The function can convert dates from many different formats. |

Day | Returns the day of the month. Possible values are from 1-31. |

FormatCurrency | Format a number value into currency. |

FormatDate | Formats a date. |

FormatDateTime | Formats a date with time. |

FormatNumber | Formats a number. |

FormatPercent | Formats a number as a percentage. |

Hour | Returns the hour of the day. Possible return values are 0-23. |

Case | Returns one value or another, depending on if the expression evaluates to True or False. |

InString | Returns the character location where one string is found within another string. |

Int | Returns the integer portion of a number, removing any decimal places. |

IsDate | Returns True if the text is a date. |

IsNumeric | Returns True if the text is a number. |

Lower | Converts all characters to lower case. |

Left | Returns the "length" number of characters from the left side of the input text. |

Len | Returns the number of characters in the text. |

LTrim | Removes the space characters from the left side of the text. |

Mid | Returns characters from the middle of the text. |

Minute | Returns the minute of the hour. Possible return values are 0-59. |

Month | Returns the month of the year. Possible return values are 1-12. |

MonthName | Returns the name of the month. |

Now | Returns the current date and time. |

Power | Exponentiation: Power( m, n ). Function returns m raised to the nth power. |

Date | Returns the current date, with time = 00:00:00. |

Replace | Searches textSearch for textFind, replacing it with the textReplaceWith value. |

Right | Returns the "length" number of characters from the right side of the input text. |

Rand | Returns a random number between 0 and 1. |

Round | Returns a number rounded to a specified number of decimal places. |

RTrim | Removes any space characters from the right side of the text. |

Second | Returns the second of the minute. Possible values are 0-59. |

Sign | Returns -1 if the number is negative. Returns 1 if the number is positive. Returns 0 if the number is 0. |

Space | Returns text consisting of the number of spaces. |

Square | Returns the square of a number. |

String | Returns text consisting of the character duplicated the number of times. |

Reverse | Returns the text with the characters in reverse order. |

TimeValue | Returns a time value from a time string. The function can convert dates from many different formats. |

Trim | Removes space characters from both the left and rights sides of the text. |

Upper | Converts all characters to upper case. |

Weekday | Returns the number of the day of the week. Possible return values are 1-7. |

WeekdayName | Returns the name of the day corresponding to the weekday number. |

Year | Returns the number of the year of the specified date. |

## Operators

**Operators** do arithmetic and logical comparisons.

Operator |
Description |

- | Negation |

* | Multiplication |

/ | Division |

% | Modulus: m%n. |

+ | Addition and string concatenation |

- | Subtraction |